Original Scientific References

General Creatine References

Balsom, P. et al. (1994) Creatine in humans with special references to creatine supplementation. Sports Med 18, pp 268-280

Stricker, P. R. (1998) Other ergogenic agents. In Clinics in sports medicine: Sports Pharmacology. Ed., James B. Robinson, M.D. W.B. Saunders Company, pp 283-297

Williams, M. H. and Branch, J. D. (1998) Creatine supplementation and exercise performance. J Am Coll Nutr 17(3), pp 216-234

Creatine and Women

Vandenberghe, K. et al. (1997) Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance-training. J Appl Physiol 83, pp 2055-2063

Creatine Side Effects


Benzi, G. (2000) Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as a nutritional supplement or a drug administration in humans participation in a sport. Pharmacol Reviews 41(3), pp 255-264

Juhn, M. S. and Tarnopolsky, M. (1998) Potential side effects of oral creatine supplementation: A critical review. Clin J Sports Med 8, pp 298-304

Poortmans, J. R. & Francaux, M. (2000) Adverse effects of creatine supplementation. Fact or Fiction? Sports Medicine 30(3), pp 155-170

Silber, M. L. (1999) Scientific facts behind creatine monohydrate as sport nutrition supplement. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 39(3), pp 179-88

Terjung, R. L. et al. (2000) The physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32 pp 706-717
Note: A roundtable discussion sponsored by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Wyss, M. and Kaddurah-Daouk, R. (2000) Creatine and Creatinine Metabolism. Physiol Rev 80 (3) pp 1107-1213
Note: Discusses the possible role of creatine in cancer. Not for the biochemically squeamish!

Neuromuscular Diseases and Muscular Dystrophy

Tarnopolsky, M. and Martin, J. (1999). Creatine monohydrate increases strength in patients with neuromuscular disease. Neurology 52 pp 854-857

Walter et al. (2000) Creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophies: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Neurology 54 pp1848-1850

Wyss, M. et al. (1998) The therapeutic potential of oral creatine supplementation in muscle disease. Med Hypotheses 51 pp 333-336

Wyss, M. & Schulze, A. (2002) Health implications of creatine: Can oral creatine supplementation protect against neurological and atherosclerotic disease? Neuroscience 112 pp 243-260

Note: This review discusses the possible role of creatine supplementation in combatting coronary heart disease as a result of reducing plasma homocysteine levels. It also provides a concise synopsis of the evidence implicating creatine use to the development of cancer. This review also provides an insightful analysis of the evidence linking creatine use to renal dysfunction.
In fact, all the Wyss reviews are extremely good resources for those who truly want to understand the inner workings of creatine.

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